Wednesday, March 18, 2020
buy custom Medieval Philosophies essay Medieval Philosophies The article Medieval Philosophies What Are They, and Why? by Georgy Gereby sheds more light to the notion of medieval philosophy. The author shows that the subject under discussion is not as simple as one may think at first glance. It has particular problems and difficulties on different levels. First, the term is problematic. It appears that it is complicated to define the term because of chronological and geographical aspects. One of the problems the researchers face is that the time framework of the Middle Ages is rather blurred. There are different versions about the beginning of this period. Second, the historical approaches are flawed. It seems that each historian has their own understanding of the Middle Ages and its philosophy. After all, the readers get to know that medieval philosophy is not strictly determinated chronologically, geographically, historically, and conceptually (Gereby 173). The problematic context of the medieval philosophy reveals the main question of the article. The author wonders if the philosophy of the Middle Ages existed at all. On the one hand, Gereby assumes that the philosophy requires some freedom of reason. On the other hand, he acknowledges that in the Middle Ages the Christian Church restricted the free use of reason. Thus, Christianity appeared to dominate medieval philosophy. Therefore, the author claims that the medieval philosophy was a religious philosophy. He supports his claim with the objectivation of Harry Wolfson and presents the main counterargument of Bertram Russell. Besides, Gereby shows the similarities and differences between theology and philosophy. According to him, philosophy used to be independent as a science, but closely related to theology. Comparison between different opinions leads him to the answer to his question. Gereby concludes that there was a philosophy in the Middle Ages, though to realize it, knowledge of the entire context is necessary. Thus, the article expands the readers vision on the essence of medieval philosophy. I learned a lot from reading the article. First, I got to know that there are three branches of medieval philosophy: Jewish, Christian and Islamic. Before, I had been familiar only with the Christian medieval philosophy and I had never heard of the Jewish one. I learned that although these three branches shared a common heritage in science, Judaism and Christianity had a profound impact on medieval philosophy. The approach of an author explains a lot, namely, how the debates were possible between philosophers and why traditional philosophers did not appear at that time. Second, I learned why theology is a science. Before that, I have never considered it one. To me, it was more about faith than about theoretical framework and principles. After reading this article, I have changed my mind. I see the logic in the argumentation of Thomas Aquinas. He effectively harmonizes faith and reason. Of course, philosophy and theology are different. Philosophy is based on the human mind, and theology is inspired by revelation. Still, both philosophy and theology refer to the truth and reality. Third, I learned that the medieval philosophy is not simple. I thought I had known a lot about the philosophy of that period, because I used to read about it in the books. Now I know that I lack competency in this field. Furthermore, currently I notice many uncertainties in the course of history and logical fallacies in argumentations. I suppose that there is no universal truth in science even if it claims there is. The universal opinion on the medieval philosophy period has not been achieved. Also, the essence of medieval philosophy remains blurred. I see that both Aquinas and Russell may be right, therefore, the reliability of scientific knowledge is relative. Order custom essay from EliteWritings.com
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Intersectionality - Definition and Discussion Intersectionality refers to the simultaneous experience of categorical and hierarchical classifications including but not limited to race, class, gender, sexuality, and nationality. It also refers to the fact that what is often perceived as disparate forms of oppression, like racism, classism, sexism, and xenophobia, are actually mutually dependent and intersecting in nature, and together they compose a unified system of oppression. Thus, the privileges we enjoy andÃ the discrimination we faceÃ are a product of our unique positioning in society as determined by these social classifiers. The Intersectional Approach Sociologist Patricia Hill Collins developed and explained the concept of intersectionality in her groundbreaking book, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment, published in 1990. Today intersectionality is a mainstay concept of critical race studies, feminist studies, queer studies, the sociology of globalization, and a critical sociological approach, generally speaking. In addition to race, class, gender, sexuality, and nationality, many of todays sociologists also include categories like age, religion, culture, ethnicity, ability, body type, and even looks in their intersectional approach. Crenshaw on Race and Gender in the Legal System The term Ã¢â¬Å"intersectionalityÃ¢â¬ was first popularized in 1989 by critical legal and race scholarÃ KimberlÃ © Williams CrenshawÃ in a paper titled, Ã¢â¬Å"Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrines, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics,Ã¢â¬ published in The University of Chicago Legal Forum. In this paper, Crenshaw reviewedÃ legal proceedings to illustrate how it is the intersection of race and gender that shapes how black men and women experience the legal system. She found, for example, that when cases brought by black women failed to match the circumstances of those brought by white women or by black men, that their claims were not taken seriously because they didnt fit perceived normative experiences of race or gender. Thus, Crenshaw concluded that black women were disproportionately marginalized due to the simultaneous, intersecting nature of how they are read by others as both raced and gender ed subjects. Collins and a Ã¢â¬Å"Matrix of Domination While CrenshawÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion of intersectionality centered on what she has referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"the double bind of race and gender,Ã¢â¬ Patricia Hill Collins broadened the concept in her book Black Feminist Thought. Trained as a sociologist, Collins saw the importance of folding class and sexuality into this critical analytic tool, and later in her career, nationality too. Collins deserves credit for theorizing a much more robust understanding of intersectionality, and for explainingÃ how the intersecting forces of race, gender, class, sexuality, and nationality manifest in a Ã¢â¬Å"matrix of domination.Ã¢â¬ Privileges and Forms of Oppression The point of understanding intersectionality is to understand the variety of privileges and/or forms of oppressionÃ that one may experience simultaneously at any given time.Ã For instance, when examining the social world through an intersectional lens, one can see that a wealthy, white, heterosexual man who is a citizen of the United States experiences the world from the apex of privilege. He is in the higher strata of economic class, he is at the top of the racial hierarchy of U.S. society, his gender places him in a position of power within a patriarchal society, his sexuality marks him as Ã¢â¬Å"normal,Ã¢â¬ and his nationality bestows upon him a wealth of privilege and power in global context. The Ideas and Assumptions Encoded in Race By contrast, consider the everyday experiences of a poor, undocumented Latina living in the U.S. Her skin color and phenotype mark her as Ã¢â¬Å"foreignÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ compared with the perceived normality of whiteness. The ideas and assumptions encoded in her race suggest to many that she is not deserving of the same rights and resources as others who live in the U.S. Some may even assume that she is on welfare, manipulating the health care system, and is, overall, a burden to society. Her gender, especially in combination with her race, marks her as submissive and vulnerable, and as a target to those who may wish to exploit her labor and pay her criminally low wages, whether in a factory, on a farm, or for household labor. Her sexuality too and that of the men who may be in positions of power over her is an axis of power and oppression, as it can be used to coerce her through the threat of sexual violence. Further, her nationality, say, Guatemalan, and her undocumen ted status as an immigrant in the U.S., also functions as an axis of power and oppression, which might prevent her from seeking health care when needed, from speaking out against oppressive and dangerous work conditions, or from reporting crimes committed against her due to fear of deportation. The Analytic Lens of Intersectionality The analytic lens ofÃ intersectionalityÃ is valuable here because it allows us to consider a variety of social forces simultaneously, whereas a class-conflict analysis, or a gender or racial analysis, would limit our ability to see and understand the way privilege, power, and oppression operate in interlocking ways. However, intersectionality is not just useful for understanding how different forms of privilege and oppression exist simultaneously in shaping our experiences in the social world. Importantly, it also helps us to see that what is perceived as disparate forces are actually mutually dependent and co-constitutive. The forms of power and oppression present in the life of the undocumented Latina described above are particular not just to her race, gender, or citizenship status, but are reliant on common stereotypes of Latinas in particular, because of how their gender is understood in the context of their race, as submissive and compliant. Because of its power as an analytic tool, intersectionality is one of the most important and widely used concepts in sociology today.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Human Resources Management in Apple Company - Essay Example Microsoft was the prominent competitor of Apple from tis beginning itself. In 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s Apple struggled to counter the competition faced from Microsoft. Microsoft pushed Apple yards behind with the introduction of their Window based operating system. However, Apple was able to bounce back at the beginning of twenty first century with the help of their innovative Ã¢â¬Å"iÃ¢â¬ series products such as iMac, iPhone, iPad, iPod, iTunes etc. Kim (2010) has pointed out that Apple Inc, is currently the second largest company in the world in market capitalization, second only to Exxon Mobil. Moreover it is believed to be the most valuable technological company in the world at present, again pushing Microsoft far behind (Kim, 2010). (Warren, 2010) Even though Apple succeeded in achieving top spots in international market, many people believe that their organizational culture and human resource management needs drastic changes to maintain their top spot in the market. E ven though Apple employees are getting competitive salaries, increased workload, lack of work-life balancing, lack of motivation, prejudices and biases in deciding promotions etc are some of the major complaints of the employees. Moreover, AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s success and failures revolve around the charismatic leadership of Steve Jobs. This paper critically analyses AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s human resource management policies at the individual level, group level and organizational level. Individual Level Work Motivation The topic of employee motivation in Apple Company is a controversial one. On one side, Apple is able to motivate the employees and on the other side some of its HR strategies are demotivating the employees. It is a fact that Apple provides ample opportunities to the fresh employees to grow under the wings of experienced employees (Qumer, 2009, p.3). The above strategy is a big blessing for the fresh employees to take advantages of the immense experience and talents of the experience d ones. The above work culture helps Apple to blend fresh and the experienced hands in a judicious manner so that neither the employees nor the organization faces any problems in completing their works. Fresh employees may bring new ideas to the organization which will be critically analyzed with the help of experienced ones. Thus the fresh people will get immense support from the experienced hands in shaping their ideas and concepts useful to the company. The compensation and benefits offered to employees of Apple are very competitive and it includes product discounts, vacation time, healthcare, training courses, casual dress codes on jobs etc. In 1995, Apple created the Apple Fellows Program in order to recognize its best employees who had made extraordinary contributions to the company. Funny, brilliant, relaxed co-workers and modern spacious beautiful offices filled with comfortable equipments etc are some of the major benefits of working in Apple Company. Apple workforce includ es diverse employees from different countries which enable them to utilize the expertise from different regions. It provides equal opportunities to its diverse employees irrespective of their ethnic background (Qumer, 2009, p.3-9). In short, Apple is keen in recognizing outstanding performances with rewards which is definitely a motivating factor for the employees. At the same time there many complaints also about some of the controversial HR policies of Apple. Employees often forced to work overtime and thereby they are facing troubles in achieving proper work-life balancing. Moreover Apple provides no information about the new products which are going to be developed in the company. The above policy demotivated the employees since no organization can capture the employee
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Research Critique - Essay Example Suggestions and alternatives on how to improve these strengths and weaknesses shall also be considered. The research subject of this critique is relevant to the practice as it evaluates the effects of securing fall prevention policies in hospitals, especially for the elderly and those with limited and compromised mobility. This topic is also relevant as it displays the benefits of a fall prevention program in the hospital with the end hope of securing improved patient outcomes. Critical evaluation The title of the article is clear and very much precise. It is short enough to warrant interest from the reader, but also concise in its description of the research. It also provides the foundations of the research in terms of its variables and clinical setting. It does not however specify the subject respondents for the research, whether they be elderly patients in critical care or those who have compromised mobility. These details would have made the title more concise and encompassing. T he abstract is adequately written. It clearly provides a condensed version of the contents of the study, noting the research questions, aims, and objectives of the study (Polit and Hungler, 1997). The methods of the study have also been specified in the abstract, including the results and conclusion (Parahoo and Reid, 1988). The abstract is however overly long, made up of more than 250 words. Abstracts should average about 100 to 200 words (Ingham-Broomfield, 2006). The background/introduction of the study clearly identifies the purpose of the article. The authors detail the conceptual basis for the study, while also identifying gaps and health issues in the practice. The aims and objectives of the study were also identified in the research, particularly specifying the general direction of the research paper (Parahoo and Reid, 1988). The only weakness which can be seen in the introduction is that not all the essential details for the background of the study are identified in the tex t instead, they are incorporated into the text for the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s extrapolation. As for the literature review, it is not clearly identified as a distinct part of the research. Instead, it is incorporated and summarized in the introduction. Nevertheless, all the important details for the literature review are contained therein (Polit and Hungler, 1997). Original and primary sources have been used by the authors. The studies included in the literature review detail what is currently known about the research topic, the gaps in the knowledge, the significance of the study, and the position of the study within the current body of knowledge (Polit and Hungler, 1997). A broad understanding of the topic has been made possible through the literature review and the authors were able to use the studies to guide their methodology in their research. The review also assessed the strengths and weaknesses of the methods used in the previous studies and to use such data to guide their research (Burns and Grove, 2001). The other methods were also critiqued in order to analyze their applicability to their current research. In reviewing the researchÃ¢â¬â¢s literature reviewed, more studies could have been discussed or drawn out in order to provide more support for the study. These studies would have strengthened the research foundation and provided more details to guide the researchers. The design for the study Ã¢â¬â comparative Ã¢â¬â
Friday, January 24, 2020
Bob Marley Clemson University There are hundreds of thousands of people screaming for you on stage. The Prime Minister and leader of the opposition sit in the arena. Many thought this was a sight that would never be seen, but it was just the sight Bob Marley had in front of him at the One Love Peace Concert in Kingston Jamaica (April, 1978). This was his first appearance back in Jamaica in 14 years, an amazing show culminating with Bob joining the hands of opposing political figures onstage, and holding them firmly together. A hero and an icon while living, Bob Marley continues to influence people 25 years after his death (African Service News). His music and lyrics worked as the rhetoric of the Rastafarian movement against oppression, exploitation and racism in Jamaica. Using metaphors to describe the hardships of the political fights of Jamaicans and Africans Marley established himself as the spokesman of a race and culture. The Rastafari religion, the heart of BobÃ¢â¬â¢s music, based itself in belief of Ã¢â¬ËJah,Ã¢â¬â¢ which was a metaphor for a god of goodness and love. Jah was the force fighting against the oppression from Ã¢â¬ËBabylon,Ã¢â¬â¢ the destructive force. Metaphors of oppression and freedom, such as chains and birds, depict social problems and ways of liberation (Jensen). Many of MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s lyrics included these references and therefore fell into the latitude of acceptance, explained in Muzafer SherifÃ¢â¬â¢s studies on Social Judgment Theory (Griffin), of his Rastafari listeners. When Marley spoke of things that were in the latitude of acceptance of his audience, his words impacted them listeners incredibly. Ã¢â¬Å"If you get down and quarrel everyday/You're saying prayers to the devil, I say/ Why not help one another on the way/ Make it much easier/ Jah love, Jah love, protect usÃ¢â¬ Positive Vibrations. Marley strived to increase awareness among the people of Jamaica, but his popularity didnÃ¢â¬â¢t end there. His music spread through the hearts of Europeans, Africans, and Americans. Lyrics and music work together to offer messages comprised of both theoretical and emotional content through the constructs of virtual experience (lyrics) and virtual time (music). Both virtual experience and virtual time must exist for music to function rhetorically (Sellnow). However it can sometimes work out otherwise. In fact, it was the bass heavy style of Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s new age r... ... when it hits you feel no pain. So hit me with music, hit me with music now, brutalize me with musicÃ¢â¬ Bob Marley Feb. 6, 1945 Ã¢â¬â May 11, 1981 Bibliography Bob Marley Continues to Touch People's Hearts 20 Years After. (August 7, 2002) Africa News Service, p1008219u1157 Griffin, E. (2003). A first look at communication theory. 4th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill. Hakanen, E.A., Wells, A., Ying, L.L.S., (1999). Music choice for emotional use and management by Hong Kong adolescents. Asian Journal of Communication. 9 (1), 72-85. King, Stephen, Jensen, Richard (1995). Bob Marley's "Redemption Song": the rhetoric of reggae and Rastafari. Journal of Popular Culture, v29 n3 p17(20) Napier, Kristine. (Nov-Dec 1997) Antidotes to pop culture poison. Policy Review, n86 p12(3) Sellnow, Deanna D. (1999). Music as persuasion: Refuting hegemonic Masculinity in "He Thinks He'll Keep Her". Women's Studies in Communication. 22 (1, Spring), 66-84. Sellnow, Deanna, and Sellnow, Timothy. (2001). The "illusion of life" rhetorical perspective: An integrated approach to the study of music as communication. Critical Studies in Media Communication. 18 (4, December), 395-415.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
SOCIAL MEDIA: BOON OR BANE? Roberto M. Macatuggal, Ph. D. Web 2. 0 has enabled web-based services, such as social networking sites, wikis, communication tools, etc. , that emphasize collaboration and sharing among users. This platform (Davis, 2012), described simply as the read/write web, allows users to be both consumers and producers of online content. It is an interactive two-way web; a place where everyday folks with Internet access can create and edit stuff. Davis compares Web 1. 0 and Web 2. 0: Web 1. 0 was a place to go and get, while Web 2. 0 is a place to be and do.Gregory (2011) clarifies further that Web 2. 0 allows for participating and sharing in the production of resources. It is about communities, participation, and peering. A social network (Wikipedia) is a theoretical construct that is used to study the relationships between and among individuals, social units, or even whole societies. Georg Simmel pioneered in early structural theories in Sociology and Jacob Moreno is credited for having developed the first sociograms in the 1930s to study interpersonal relationships. Web 2. 0 social networking working capabilities have spawned the development of social media tools.What is social media? According to Parker (2011) social media are the uses of Web technology to spread messages through social interaction that happens online. Rean John Uehara (Webdesigner. com) defines social media as a combination of human interaction through web applications where people produce their own content, mold their own experience, and define their online presence. A loose definition of social media is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s like a country, people gather and interact with massive amounts of people from their area and abroad. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s really a broad place, both wonderful and terrible depending on its use.Two of the most popular social media are Facebook (visited at http:// blog. facebook. com/blog. php? post =287542130) which claims to have more than 400 million users and T witter (http://blog. twitter. com/2010/02/measuring-tweets. html) receiving around 50 million updates a day from users, which is an average of 600 tweets per second. Parker (2011) differentiates the following social media tools: 1. Blogging Ã¢â¬â an informal conversational medium for writing and publishing content online on regular basis. (e. g. , Blogger, Typepad, WordPress). 2. Microblogging Ã¢â¬â a short form of blogging where posts are usually limited in length and format. e. g. , Twitter, Friendfeed) 3. Social Networking Ã¢â¬â a way to engage and interact with a specific online community by way of a fan or profile page. 4. Social Bookmarking Ã¢â¬â a central location for posting links to useful resources which can be seen and shared by other users. (e. g. , Digg, Stumbleupon, Delicious). 5. Multimedia Ã¢â¬â Sharing rich media such as video, images, and presentation online. (e. g. , YouTube, SlideShare, Flickr). 6. Reviews and Opinions Ã¢â¬â a way for customers to share opinions and reviews of products and services online. (e. g. , Yahoo! Answers, Epinions, eHow). 7.Wikis Ã¢â¬â a central repository designed to be edited by a group rather than one person. (e. g. , Wikipedia, Wikia, Wikitravel, Dealipedia, Wikimapia). What are the benefits of social media? Nakul Arora wrote in his blog that in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s fast growing world, social media is the latest thing which has made its presence felt virtually across all the sectors. Facebook and Twitter are two big players having majority control within social media. Thus, it becomes very important for any organization today to be present in some form or the other on these networks so as to connect with the wide following these networks have.These networks have also taken individualism to another level altogether with each person having a considerable say over his friend group. Thus if any educational institution at all succeeds in winning over a student to avail of its educational services, the chance of influencing his friends also increases. According to Arora, there are 5 things that educational institutions can do to tap into the students on Facebook and Twitter: 1. Forming a dedicated team. This aspect involves creation of a dedicated team for the sole purpose of managing the social media setup for the institution.This is very important in the present environment there being more than one department in an institution. It is also important to ensure the smooth functioning of the online groups with the social media team managing and ensuring a proper sync between all the different aspects of the institution. An example here to show the need of such a team would be to simply take a case wherein an ex-student of the university sends out a job opportunity to a group of present students online. Now, the social team would keep track of this and forward it to the respective department which an then ensure that the opportunity is properly utilized by the students. This dedica ted team would also ensure that the institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s updates are well planned and organized instead of doing them at random. This would thus, cater well to the different groups of ex, current and prospective students. 2. Giving before receiving. A common rule of the internet is that you have to first give before you receive. Any person would only follow a particular group or institution if they are sharing things that are unique and beneficial in some way for the person.This is not a tough thing to achieve, for every institution is unique in its own aspect and thus, creation and sharing of unique things wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t offer such a big problem. Also, the university can utilize its previously existing case-studies, problems, etc. for the purpose of engaging the prospecting and other interested students. It can also share newsletter articles about happenings in the institution with the people who are interested in keeping updated with the affairs of the school. 3. Forming and coor dinating student online groups.Students are any institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest asset and can be the best people to spread the message of the happenings and current life of the institution. Thus, any institution should maintain an online students group where it should form a dedicated team of student volunteers to share the latest things from the campus. This would give the prospective students a real glimpse of the actual life in the campus and also help them connect with the current students. The ex-students can also use this group to remain connected with their Alma Mater.Such groups can also be formed for specific purposes: a group can be formed solely for the purpose of sharing internship opportunities by the alumni with the current students. Another such group can be exclusively for the alumni and staff members to reconnect and be in touch. Also, smaller groups can be formed to influence students who have negative attitudes and perceptions about the school. 4. Presence of influen tial personalities on the networks. Every college has its heroes: professors or teachers who are famous for their service in a particular field of study.These are people who have a huge fan following and thus, any update that they make will be followed by a large number of people. The university has to ensure that professors of such repute have their presence in the social world as well and they also communicate on a regular basis with their followers. Many institutions have already initiated this with their chancellors and heads having an active Facebook or Twitter account. They can actually hold open forums, discussions or simply answer some queries occasionally on the social media. 5. Trying to create a better world.The institutions can also use the social media for their aims towards providing a good education to all. This can be done with the creation of free online courses which can be taken by anyone and everyone. The world has been propelled in that direction with the introd uction of AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iUniversity which gives the universities an opportunity to provide a host of courses, either free or paid. This will go a long way in developing the reputation of the university while benefiting in the process due to development of good content and new courses.This will help towards creating a better world where quality education will be free and available to all. As the prevalence of social media continues to rise, organizations of all types and sizes are recognizing the ways in which social media can help them better understand, respond to, and attract the attention of their target audience. As a result, businesses are now jumping on the social media bandwagon at a rapid pace, embracing blogs, social networks, wikis, and other vehicles to achieve their marketing and public relations goals.The types of benefits that corporations achieve with an effective social media strategy (http://shiftcomm. com/social_media_benefits. html) are the following: 1. Get the message out faster Ã¢â¬â and to more people. Social media enables more rapid sharing of information. It may take hours, or even days, for a new announcement to reach the end consumer through traditional channels. Why? Because when a press release is issued, a journalist or writer must first wade through all the sales and marketing lingo to find the key points.Then, the content must be re-purposed in article format, and sent to an editor or proofreader before it is published. Social media vehicles, on the other hand, allow for instantaneous dissemination of not just news, but images, audio, video, and other multimedia content as well. And because releases geared toward social media outlets contain only key highlights, pertinent facts, and hyperlinks to related statistics and quotes, the information they contain can be immediately picked up and posted by bloggers and other online journalists.Social media also provides more widespread coverage, enabling breaking news to reach a much larger and broader reader base than standard media outlets alone. While magazine readership and the number of available print publications continue to decline, the number of consumers using the Internet to access and share information continues to rise sharply. For example, one recent study showed that almost one out of every four Internet users Ã¢â¬â over 41 million people total in 2006 Ã¢â¬â visits MySpace on a regular basis. 2. Improve branding.Social media, and blogs in particular, can be a highly useful tool for enhancing both awareness and image. Blogging can help Ã¢â¬Å"spread the wordÃ¢â¬ about a company, its products, and its services to more people, dramatically increasing brand recognition and awareness. Additionally, social media can enable executives to gather input and feedback directly from their target audience, and use that intelligence for more effective reputation management. Insight into why people like Ã¢â¬â or hate Ã¢â¬â a brand is needed to hel p change and control audience perceptions and preferences. 3. Boost the impact of direct marketing.Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a key component of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s direct marketing and lead generation strategies, and social media has proven its ability to significantly complement SEO initiatives. Many social media techniques Ã¢â¬â such as frequent use of common jargon and key phrases, title tags, ticker symbols, and links to blogs and other relevant Web content Ã¢â¬â can dramatically improve search engine rankings. Additionally, while SEO relies on just a handful of popular search engines such as Google and Yahoo to drive target prospects to a site, social media expands the potential audience by creating alternate channels.For example, when content is published to a site, and that content is then linked to delicious or reddit, it can generate a tremendous boost in Web traffic. Many companies also find it much easier to generate compelling content that is likely to be pick ed up by bloggers, than it is to keep up with the Ã¢â¬Å"rulesÃ¢â¬ required to rank high in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s popular search engines Parker (2011) suggests five (5) steps in the effective use of social media in business: 1. Think of the bigger picture. Be consistent with the message you wish to convey across various tools. 2. Use less rather than more media tools.It is important to consider your objectives as a basis for selecting the appropriate media tool. 3. Appoint a social media champion. The person would be responsible in engaging the clients / customers regularly; develops strategies to promote the business through social media. He/she would also be responsible in coordinating employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ personal and social media activities. 4. Tracking the effect. Track the impact of social media efforts on the business such as increased traffic to the website of your business. 5. Take action. Retain the social media tool that gives you more business.Schools have likewise taken advant age of social media to reach out to as many students as possible. For universities competing to attract top students, it's no longer enough to have a glossy brochure and a sleek website. Schools like Johns Hopkins are reaching out to engage with applicants on Facebook and Twitter. They're also finding that a robust social media campaign, along with such creative features as student-run blogs, can lure prospective students while a stale online presence can turn them off. College admissions officers are indeed learning to interact with students where they hang out: online.According to a recent study by the Center for Marketing Research at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, 100% of universities surveyed use social media to communicate with students, up from 61% in 2007-08. The study found that 98% of the responding colleges have a Facebook page and 84% have a Twitter account. What are some of the misuses of social media? Social media, according to Prateek Shah, is as prone to m isuse as your computer is to virus. One of the misuses of social media is defaming people/groups/religions/communities. This is possible because of the anonymity of the person posting the derogatory statements.Celebrity fake accounts are being made and untrue stories about them are being spread. Ã¢â¬ËHacking at homeÃ¢â¬â¢ has led to stealing of passwords and accessing the private lives of others, leading to relationship woes and even divorces. A survey by the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (AAML) revealed that four out of five lawyers reported a growing number of divorce cases that cited evidence derived from networking sites. What is at stake when social media is misused and abused? Because of social media misuse and abuse, Uehara (posted at Webdesigner. om) says that you as a social media user may lose: 1. Your soul. If you have a huge audience and you make one little blunder, people will strike you with their pitchforks. 2. Your integrity. Huge claims, especially in public, can easily be cross-examined. 4. Your privacy. Often, people would share snippets of their personal lives on social media sites which is tantamount to loss of privacy. 3. Your job. People have lost their jobs because of a single tweet! 4. Your future. People remember. What you share now with people can haunt you several years from now.The future of social media Gregory argues that social networking through the web with sites such as Twitter, Myspace, Facebook, Second Life, YouTube, and Flicker is becoming a widespread if not dominant form of communication among Internet users, and most popular phenomena prognosticators forecast that this type of collaborating will continue and grow exponentially. Prateek Shah warns that regular attempts at curbing the freedom of social media will be made, but the truth is that it is leading us towards a new world where the lies will be trashed and the guilty will be charged.He says that It will not happen overnight but change has begun and i t is for the common good. In the Philippines, our legislators have crafted House Bill 3732, otherwise known as the Freedom of Information Bill. Social Media and the Internet will be among the enablers of the Freedom of Information Bill, which will boost transparency and minimize graft and corruption in the government. Maintaining ethics in the hyper-networked world of social media Tyler Pennock, Director of Social Media, Rude Finn Creative Edge formulated the following ethical guidelines in the use of social media: 1. Honesty: State nly what you know to be true Ã¢â¬â and be clear about opinion or conjecture vs. fact. 2. Transparency: Be straightforward about who you are Ã¢â¬â and who youÃ¢â¬â¢re representing online. 3. Respect: Respect for yourself, your peers, and even your adversaries. 4. Privacy: Treat the intimate details of others as you would your own personal information. 5. Relevance: Ensure that the content youÃ¢â¬â¢re posting is relevant to the audience and the v enue where itÃ¢â¬â¢s being posted. 6. Responsibility: Take ownership of your online activities, the content youÃ¢â¬â¢ve created, and any missteps youÃ¢â¬â¢ve made along the way.Conclusion Social media is manÃ¢â¬â¢s creation to respond to a need for expanding the network of social relationships, towards the realization of a real global village. However, the effectiveness of such social media depends on the selection of the tools that suit oneÃ¢â¬â¢s purposes and objectives, including their proper use through the observance of ethical practices that respect the rights and uphold the dignity of the human person. References Arora, Nakul. 5 Ways Educational Institutions Can Use Facebook and Twitter For Studies And Coordination.Davis, Cheryl Ann Peltier. (2012). The CybrarianÃ¢â¬â¢s Web. London: Facet Publishing. Gregory, Vicki L. (2011). Collection Development and Management for 21st Century Library Collections: An Introduction. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc. Parker, Catherine . (2011). 301 Ways to Use Social Media to Boost Your Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill. Prateek, Shah. Use, Misuse and Abuse of Social Media. Posted at http://greensmyles. com/2012/06/the-use-and-misuse-of-social-media/ Uehara, Rean John. Social Media Misuse That Could Cost You Big Time. Webdesigner. com.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
The Role of Language Can contemporary discourse presume a community of interest? In order to answer this question, one is forced to first answer the question, can language be used to reveal anything new? If the answer is yes, then how can it do this and how can we employ it to do this for us. Also, one is forced to ask what is it exactly that we are looking for? Once weÃ¢â¬â¢ve found it, how can we use it to improve our present condition? Plato and Descartes both believe that language can indeed improve our conditions through itÃ¢â¬â¢s revelation, and both give methods to attain new knowledge. Although vastly differing, in that Descartes builds knowledge from the ground up, while Plato works from a distorted view, and seeks to clarify it, theirÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s most recognized work, the Republic, his cave analogy describes a prisoner who has spent all of his life in bondage looking at nothing but shadow puppets on the back of a cave wall. For him, all, which he believes to be true, are the actions and reactions of the shadow puppets. His entire reality is essentially a shrouded image of the truth. Somehow it comes to pass that the prisoner is released from bondage and, for the first time, stands up, exits the cave and sees the light of the sun. The prisoner will gaze on his body and on all things in the suns light and for the first time see the truth of what actually is and realize the falsities with which he has lived for all of his life. In a sense, Plato is using the sun as a metaphor for the focusing lense provided by dialectic. In the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s case, the sunlight provided the ability to see the incompleteness of his reality. For Plato and Socrates, language enables us to see the incompleteness of our own way of thinking and provides a means with which to fill in the blanks or see things in their completeness. Socrates devised a method of argumentation, now called the Socratic method, in which he uses language in argument to enhance an d expound upon a given definition, and then to amplify and refine what is said until all parties understand and agree. Language, in ProtagorasÃ¢â¬â¢ view, is nothing more than a tool of power, capable of creatingShow MoreRelatedRole Of Language Teaching And Learning Language1941 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesROLE OF CULTURE IN LANGUAGE TEACHING Introduction Language is a means of expression. We express our feelings, emotions, thoughts, needs, desires etc. in words, symbols and gesture which is considered as language. Language can be defined as verbal, physical, biologically innate, and a basic form of communication. Culture is the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts. 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